La communication médiatisée par les technologies pour l’anglais à l’école primaire

Bibliographie

Breen, M. (1987). Learner contribution to the task design. In C. N. Candlin & D. Murphy (Eds.),
Language learning tasks (Vol. 7, pp. 23–46). London: Prentice-Hall International.

Cutrim Schmid, E. & Cvetkovic, A. 2016, Digitale Medien im Englischunterricht der Grundschule. In: Peschel, M. & Irion, T. (Ed) Neue Medien in der Grundschule 2.0. Frankfurt: Grundschulverband, 178 -188.

Dooly, M., & Sadler, R., 2016. Becoming little scientists: technologically-enhanced project-based language learning. Language Learning & Technology, 20(1), 54-78.

Ellis, R. 2013, Task-based language teaching: responding to the critics. University of Sydney Papers in TESOL, 8, 1-27.

Elsner, D. (2014). Multilingual Virtual Talking Books (MuViT) – A Project to Foster
Multilingualism, Language Awareness, and Media Competency. In D. AbendrothTimmer,
& E.-M. Hennig (Eds.), Plurilingualism and Multiliteracies. International Research on Identity Construction in Language Education. Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang, 175-190.

Erlam, R. (2016). ‘I’m still not sure what a task is’: Teachers designing language tasks. Language Teaching Research, 20(3), 279-299.

Fullan, M. (2001). Leading in a Culture of Change, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Mackey, A., & Gass, S. M. (2015). Second language research: Methodology and design. Routledge.

Gimeno-Sanz, A. (2016). Moving a step further from “integrative CALL”. What’s to come?. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 29(6), 1102-1115.

Gruson, B.,2011, Analyse comparative d’une situation de communication orale en classe ordinaire et lors d’une séance en visioconférence, Distances et Savoirs, 8/3: 395-423.

Jauregi Ondarra, K., Gruber, A., & Canto, S. (2020). When International Avatars Meet–Intercultural Language Learning in Virtual Reality Exchange. Research-publishing. net.

Kim, Y. (2017). Cognitive-interactionist approaches to L2 instruction. In The Routledge handbook of instructed second language acquisition (pp. 126-145). Routledge.

Long, M. H. (1996). Authenticity and learning potential in L2 classroom discourse. University of Hawai’i Working Papers in English as a Second Language 14 (2).

Long, M. H. (1980). Input, interaction, and second language acquisition. Unpublished PhD dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles.

Macrory, G., Chrétien, L. and Ortega-Martín, J. L. 2012, Technologically enhanced language learning in primary schools in England, France and Spain: developing linguistic competence in a technologically enhanced classroom environment, Education 3 – 13: International Journal of Primary, Elementary and Early Years Education, 40(4), .433 – 444.

Milton, J., & Garbi, A. 2000, VIRLAN: Collaborative foreign language learning on the Internet for primary age children: Problems and a solution. Educational Technology & Society, 3(3), 286-292.

Pritchard, A., Hunt, M., & Barnes, A. 2010, Case study investigation of a videoconferencing experiment in primary schools, teaching modern foreign languages, Language Learning Journal, 209-220.

van der Kroon, L., Jauregi, K., & Jan, D. 2015, Telecollaboration in Foreign Language Curricula: A Case Study on Intercultural Understanding in Video Communication Exchanges. International Journal of Computer-Assisted Language Learning and Teaching (IJCALLT), 5(3), 20-41.

Whyte, S. 2015, 

Whyte, S. 2011, Learning to teach with videoconferencing in primary foreign language classrooms. ReCALL 23(3): 271–293.

Whyte, S., & Cutrim Schmid, E. 2017, Synchronous video communication with young EFL learners: a multimodal analysis of task negotiation. Paper presented at AILA, Rio de Janeiro, 23-8 July.

Whyte, S., Schmid, E.C., van Hazebrouck Thompson, S. and Oberhofer, M. 2014, Open educational resources for CALL teacher education: the iTILT interactive whiteboard project. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 27(2), 122-148.

Ziegler, N. 2016, Taking technology to task: Technology-mediated TBLT, performance, and production. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 36, 136-163.

Using YouTube Studio and Excel for editing video

In these times of distance education and online communication, many of us are spending more time making videos, perhaps for online teaching, conferences, or projects. We’re making powerpoints with sound and video, interviewing colleagues via Zoom, or stitching together clips from different sources. And there’s often pressure to to edit videos down from longer formats into something short and sweet which will keep our viewers’ attention.

I find it helpful to work from a script with timecodes, allowing me to have an overview of all the material for my videos, but split into timed sections to help me choose what to keep and what to cut to meet an overall time limit. The best way I’ve found to get a transcript for an unscripted talk is via YouTube’s automatic subtitling function. But I’ve found it tricky to export these subtitles into a format that works in Excel and in particular to get the timecodes into a usable display.

Here’s the system I ended up using; it may be of use to others.

Working with subtitles on YouTube

First you need to upload your video to YouTube and set the language for automatic speech recognition. You’ll need a YouTube account, then go to Your Videos from the bars in the top lefthand corner or access directly from studio.youtube.com

  1. Upload video, set language, save as private.
  2. Edit subtitles from the Subtitle tab in the left menu: choose DUPLICATE and EDIT, then Show timecodes. Now you can play the video in order to correct any language errors from the automatic speech recognition process, and change any breaks if you wish. Then Save draft and PUBLISH

Now you have a transcript of your video which you can use identify the main sections of interest, and the timing breakdown for each string of words as displayed in the subtitles so you know how long each part takes.

Exporting subtitles for editing in Excel

  1. Still from the Subtitle page on YouTube Studio, hover over the three vertical dots after EDIT to the right of the list of subtitles to see more actions. Choose the srt option from the Download option.

2. Having downloaded your srt file, convert to csv (https://gotranscript.com/subtitle-converter)

3. Now open with LibreOffice. You should see each segment with start and finish timecodes and transcript in separate columns. (If I do this directly in Excel I get a presentation where some segments are spread over two rows and this creates problems later, in LibreOffice the two lines of text appear in the same row, and therefore with the same timecode.)

4. Check for line breaks. If you have text spread over two lines for a single start and finish time, then remove the line break. Here’s the procedure

  • From the Edit menu choose Search and Replace
  • Search for “\n” and set a single space as replacement. (Good luck on finding backslash on your keyboard – on my Macbook Air it’s alt-shift-forward slash)

5. Now you have a clean presentation which you can paste into Excel.

Converting milliseconds to minutes and seconds in Excel

The last hurdle is getting Excel to display the timecodes in minutes and seconds rather than milliseconds so you can see at a glance start and finish times, and calculate duration (i.e., finish minus start).

  1. Convert milliseconds to minutes and seconds as follows
  • divide by the number of seconds in 24 hours (86400000). If your start time is in cell B1, enter =B1/86400000 in cell C1, for example.
  • change the display format: in Format Cells choose Number => Custom format => [h]mm:ss

2. Now you can add extra columns to show Start (ms) Start (h:mm:s), Finish (ms) Finish (h:mm:s), and a difference in milliseconds(Finish minus Start), and finally a difference (h:mm:s) which converts the previous column.

3. This gives you a spreadsheet with one line per timestamp, start and finish times in minutes and seconds, and total time for each.

So now you can use your subtitle file from YouTube in Excel to select timed extracts and calculate playing time when editing your videos.

SHOUT4HE ebooks: higher education teaching with technology

The SHOUT4HE team is producing a set of ebooks drawing on different aspects of technology-mediated teaching in higher education contexts highlighted in this Erasmus+ project.

The three books focus on

  • the project’s recognition framework, which allows teachers to situate and reflect on their own practice along pedagogical and technological dimensions
  • the video practice examples recorded by SHOUT4HE partners in their own institutions, working with colleagues in a range of disciplines and with different levels of experience
  • communities of practice, or informal networks which help drive progress in HE teaching among teachers, instructional designers and teacher educators.

“Le CECR 2.0 suisse” : Autour du volume complémentaire

Frédérique Longuet et Claude Springer ont publié un livre Autour du CECR – Volume complémentaire (2018) : médiation et collaboration (2021) sur le volume complémentaire du CECRL

Cet ouvrage est en accès libre.

Résumé des auteurs

Le CECR/CV 2018 annonce une mise en question de certaines certitudes didactiques jugées dépassées voire erronées. La nécessité d’une rupture didactique s’est concrétisée au cours du processus de rédaction de la notion de médiation, piloté par North et Piccardo. Cette réorientation vers une prise en compte de la dimension sociale nous a semblé très intéressante dans la mesure où nous estimons depuis longtemps qu’une approche plus sociale, sous la forme de mise en projet des élèves, est plus que souhaitable à l’école.

Les réflexions des coordinateurs, North et Piccardo, autour de la médiation sociale peuvent avoir un effet positif et entraîner un changement pour une autre pédagogie de la classe de langues. Les changements souhaités nécessitent une nouvelle forme de formation des enseignants ainsi que de nouvelles expérimentations pédagogiques et des recherches d’un autre type. Forts de cette conviction, nous avons décidé de rédiger cet ouvrage dont le but est triple : expliciter la nouvelle orientation socioculturelle autour des notions de médiation et de collaboration ; proposer des déclinaisons pédagogiques pour une didactique de la Relation écologique et sociosémiotique ; et suggérer quelques pistes pour de nouvelles recherches en didactique des langues.

La didactique de la Relation s’intéresse à l’écosystème social dans sa globalité, dont les répertoires plurilingues font partie. Elle est écologique et sociosémiotique. Apprendre une langue complémentaire ne consiste pas uniquement à pouvoir faire sens avec des mots mais à décrypter et à transformer les nombreux réseaux sociosémiotiques du Tout-monde hyperconnecté. Ce que nous appelons réalité n’est en fait qu’une construction sociosémiotique, le résultat fluctuant de nos imaginaires.

Il s’agit pour nous d’ouvrir nos réflexions à l’importance des relations humaines, à la place des langages et de la pensée, c’est-à-dire d’accorder la place principale à la relation plus qu’à la communication, à la reliance et à l’apprenance plus qu’à la maîtrise de savoirs et de savoir-faire, fussent-ils numériques.

Numérique et enseignement-apprentissage des langues : Journée d’étude CLA-ALSIC 2021

Autour du numérique en langues

Les vidéos de la journée sont désormais disponible sur la chaîne YouTube du Centre de Linguistique Appliquée de l’Université de Franche-Comté.

Communications

Franck Amadieu (Université de Toulouse) – Vers une meilleure pédagogie pour un numérique plus utile

Luc Massou (Université de Lorraine) – Usage pédagogique des ressources éducatives libres (REL) : quelles tensions entre ouverture et didactisation des ressources numériques ?

Shona Whyte (Université Côte d’Azur) – L’écran et la classe de langue : théorie et pratiques de l’interaction dans la communication médiée par ordinateur

Laura Abou Haidar (Université de Grenoble Alpes) – L’oral à l’ère du numérique : enseigner et apprendre autrement ?

Nicolas Roland (Caféine. Studio & Université libre de Bruxelles) – Du dispositif pédagogique à l’expérience d’apprentissage : l’approche utilisateur·rice comme moteur de l’innovation

Christophe Reffay (Université de Franche-Comté) – De la pensée informatique à l’apprentissage des langues : une histoire à construire.

LaurenceSchmoll (Université de Strasbourg) – Les différentes dimensions du jeu numérique pour l’apprentissage des langues: état des lieux

Marie-Josée Hamel (Université d’Ottawa) – Un outil numérique pour optimiser les pratiques de rétroaction corrective écrite des enseignants de français langue seconde

Shannon Sauro (University of Maryland) – Online Fanfiction for Language Teaching and Learning

Sophie Othman (Université de Franche-Comté) – Explorer les formations comodales en langues

Autour de la variation en français langue seconde : Henry Tyne

Soutenance d’habitation à diriger des recherches en linguistique générale, jeudi 8 avril 2021

Henry Tyne (Perpignan)

Jury

J Delahaie (Lille), C Perez-Vidal (Barcelona), Jan Goes (Artois), J-M Mangiante (Artois), C Cavalla (Paris)

Résumé

Mes travaux de recherche, traitant de domaines et de données parfois assez différents, mettent en avant des notions clés en lien avec l’étude du langage, tant du point de vue de sa description empirique que de celui de son acquisition. Ainsi, il est question dans mes travaux de variation, qui est au coeur de mes réflexions, mais aussi de corpus, de réflexions psycholinguistiques, et de didactique. La synthèse se donne pour objectif de présenter mes activités professionnelles, d’enseignement et de recherche, dans un ensemble organisé en trois parties. Mes différents travaux et projets sont mentionnés, cités, discutés tout au long de la synthèse. Une liste complète des travaux publiés, contenant des indicateurs thématiques, est fournie en annexe. La première partie de la synthèse est consacrée au parcours professionnel, où il est notamment question de réfléchir à son développement ; diverses activités de recherche liées à ce développement sont abordées. La deuxième partie est consacrée aux chantiers de recherche en privilégiant une entrée thématique (plutôt que chronologique) afin de faire émerger des pistes et des préoccupations récurrentes, tout en indiquant les tournants et les évolutions. Elle est aussi l’occasion de discuter de choix scientifiques et de rencontres en lien avec des contextes professionnels. Enfin, elle permet de contextualiser certains travaux, d’annoncer des chantiers à venir, tout en les insérant dans une continuité d’enseignement et de recherche. La dernière partie de la synthèse est dédiée aux perspectives avec une réflexion sur les activités et les projets en cours ou à venir, tant au niveau de l’enseignement qu’au niveau de la recherche. 

Study Abroad Research in European Perspective (SAREP) https://sarepcost.eu/

Phonologie du Français Contemporain (PFC) https://www.projet-pfc.net/

Théorie et pratiques de l’interaction dans la communication médiée par ordinateur

Le contexte sanitaire que nous connaissons met en lumière un besoin plus urgent que jamais de savoirs et compétences dans le domaine de l’enseignement-apprentissage des langues avec les technologies. Dans cette communication, je prends comme point de départ la notion d’interaction, notion retrouvée à la fois en didactique des langues (DDL) et en acquisition des langues secondes (AL2) d’une part, et dans le numérique éducatif d’autre part. Les méthodes communicatives d’enseignement des langues comme l’approche actionnelle et l’approche par tâches font de l’interaction un élément central, tout comme les technologies, qui sont souvent supposées faciliter ou améliorer les interactions entre apprenants. J’examine en première partie l’interaction telle qu’elle est conceptualisée en DDL et en AL2, à partir d’une théorie de l’AL2 appelée l’hypothèse de l’interaction pour expliquer l’importance des interactions dans l’enseignement-apprentissage des langues. Je m’appuie sur des résultats de recherche récents sur la communication médiée par les technologies chez des étudiants qui montrent l’intérêt de l’interaction pour l’acquisition mais soulignent également des difficultés de mise en place de tâches interactives. Dans un second temps je m’intéresse aux liens entre l’intégration des technologies de classe par les enseignants de langue et les interactions entre apprenants, cette fois à l’école et dans l’enseignement secondaire. Ici les exemples viennent de projets de création de ressources éducatives libres pour la formation des enseignants. Je termine avec un certain nombre de recommandations pour le contexte actuel, où nous assistons à un transfert massif et inédit du présentiel vers le distanciel, en demandant ce que les recherches sur les technologies de classe peuvent apporter à la classe virtuelle.

Exemple ITILT

Who’s who?

Bibliographie

Eckerth, J. (2009). Negotiated interaction in the L2 classroom. Language Teaching, 42(1), 109.

Faraco, M. (2002). Répétition et apprentissage de la compétence de communication en milieu guidé. Acquisition et interaction en langue étrangère (AILE), 16, 97-120.

Foster, P. (1998). A classroom perspective on the negotiation of meaning. Applied linguistics, 19(1), 1-23.

Gass, S., Mackey, A., & Ross‐Feldman, L. (2005). Task‐based interactions in classroom and laboratory settings. Language learning, 55(4), 575-611.

Goffman, E. (1967). Interaction ritual: Essays on face-to-face interaction.

Interactive Teaching in Languages with Technology http://www.itilt2.eu

Kim, Y. (2017). Cognitive-interactionist approaches to L2 instruction. In Loewen, S., & Sato, M. (Eds). The Routledge handbook of instructed second language acquisition, 126-145.

Mackey, A., & Gass, S. M. (2015). Second language research: Methodology and design. Routledge.

Loewen, S. (2020). Introduction to instructed second language acquisition. Routledge.

Long, M. (1996). The role of the linguistic environment in second language acquisition. In Ritchie, W & Bhatia, T. (Eds.). Handbook of second language acquisition. New York: Academic Press.

Long, M. H. (1980). Input, interaction, and second‐language acquisition. Unpublished PhD dissertation, UCLA.

Pica, T. (1994). Research on negotiation: What does it reveal about second‐language learning conditions, processes, and outcomes?. Language learning, 44(3), 493-527.

Reinders, H., & Stockwell, G. (2017). Computer-assisted SLA. In Loewen, S., & Sato, M. (Eds). The Routledge handbook of instructed second language acquisition, 361-375.

Smith, B. (2003). Computer–mediated negotiated interaction: An expanded model. The Modern Language Journal, 87(1), 38-57.

Van der Zwaard, R., & Bannink, A. (2019). Towards a Comprehensive Model of Negotiated Interaction in Computer-mediated Communication. Language Learning & Technology, 23(3), 116–135

Van der Zwaard, R., & Bannink, A. (2016). Nonoccurrence of negotiation of meaning in task‐based synchronous computer‐mediated communication. The Modern Language Journal, 100(3), 625-640.

Whyte, S. (à paraître). The rise and fall of applied linguistics in France: a short chapter in language education history. In Smith, R., & Giesler, T (Eds). Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching: Historical Perspectives. Amsterdam: Benjamins. 2021.

Whyte, S. (à paraître). Acquisition des langues secondes en milieu guidé. Leclercq, P., Edmonds, A., & Sneed German, E. (eds). Introduction à l’acquisition des langues étrangères. De Boeck. 2021.

Whyte, S. (2020). Moving with the times: new developments in languages in French higher education contexts. European Journal of Language Policy, 12(2), 193-215.

Ziegler, N. (2016). Synchronous computer-mediated communication and interaction. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 38(3), 553.

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Materials, practice, and teacher education in 20th century science and technology: a “golden age” of ESP teaching

Plenary talk at GERAS 2021 in Nancy

In our increasingly interconnected world where English-language competence has long been a basic skill, English as a Lingua Franca is firmly established in many academic and professional domains, and English Medium Instruction continues to develop in myriad disciplines. During the current pandemic, which constitutes both a hiatus and a powerful disruption, it seems worth pausing to reflect on what might be learned from previous experience in the rapid expansion of English teaching, which led to the creation of the field of English for Specific Purposes (ESP) as we know it today. More specifically, this talk looks back to the last quarter of the 20th century, when British universities and the British Council invested heavily in the development of English for Science and Technology (EST), both in the UK and overseas. The emergence of this new field was not institutionally driven via what Cuban (2013) terms the intended (or official) curriculum, nor indeed was it driven by learner needs, or via a language testing programme. Instead, EST was shaped from the bottom-up, through Cuban’s “taught layer,” by the efforts of “a splendid cohort of applied linguistics specialists” (Swales 2013), whose work continues to influence ESP to this day. These ESP pioneers include Tim Johns, Tony Dudley-Evans, John Swales himself, and John Ewer, hailed as “the father of teacher education in ESP” (Howard & Brown 1997). This talk examines their innovations in terms of a) materials development, including tailored pedagogical resources as well as textbooks; b) classroom practice, particularly team-teaching with content and language specialists, and c) teacher education, considering questions of broader professional development. These early EST teachers and researchers developed a number of groundbreaking strategies to straddle the divide between literary and scientific cultures, whilst avoiding the presumption of the language teacher, who, as “an expert on communication” and “with a smattering of knowledge in the subject area,” presents as “an expert on how the subject ought to be taught, and even on what the subject ought to be” (Johns & Dudley-Evans, 1980). I conclude by comparing this golden age with our contemporary context, to consider how the legacy of our early forerunners can inform ESP education in today’s universities.

References

Airey, J. (2020) ‘The Content Lecturer and English-Medium Instruction (EMI): Epilogue to the Special Issue on EMI in Higher Education’, International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 23(3): 340–6.

Bates, Martin, & Anthony Dudley-Evans, Nucleus series. (Harlow, UK: Longman, 1976).

Cuban, Larry, The multi-layered curriculum: why change is often confused with reform. Larry Cuban on school reform and classroom practice. http://larrycuban.wordpress.com 2012

Dafouz, E., Haines, K. and Pagèze, J. (2019) ‘Supporting Educational Developers in the Era of Internationalised Higher Education: Insights from a European Project’, International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 23(3): 326–39.

Dudley-Evans, A, & John Swales, ‘Study modes and students from the Middle East,’ ELT documents 109 (1980): 91-101.

Ewer, Jack R. ‘Teacher training for EST: Problems and methods’, The ESP Journal 2 (1983): 9-31.

Ewer, Jack R & Odette Boys, ‘The EST textbook situation: An enquiry’, The ESP Journal 1 (1981): 87-105.

Ewer, Jack R. & Guillermo Latorre, ‘Preparing an English Course for Students of Science, ELT Journal 21 (1967), 221–229.

Gillet, Andrew, ‘Published EAP materials – a history’, Using English for Academic Purposes http://www.uefap.com/materials/history/eap_hist.htm

Johns, Ann, ‘The history of English for specific purposes research,’ in Paltridge Brian & Sue Starfield (eds.), Handbook of English for specific purposes (Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2013), 5-30.

Johns, Tim F., & Anthony Dudley-Evans, ‘An experiment in team-teaching of overseas postgraduate students of transportation and plant biology’, Team teaching in ESP (1980), 6-23.

Howard, Ron, & Gillian Brown, eds. Teacher education for languages for specific purposes. (Multilingual Matters, 1997).

Pagèze, J. and Lasagabaster, D. (2018) ‘Teacher Development for Teaching and Learning in English in a French Higher Education Context’, L’analisi linguistica e letteraria XXV: 289–311.

Sarré, C., & Whyte, S. (2016). Research in ESP teaching and learning in French higher education: developing the construct of ESP didactics. ASp, 69, 113-64. https://journals.openedition.org/asp/4834

St John, Maggie Jo, ‘Dudley‐Evans, Tony’, The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics (2012).

Swales, John M. Incidents in an educational life: A memoir (of sorts). (University of Michigan Press, 2013).

Swales, John M., & Chris Feak, ‘Reflections on collaborative practice in EAP materials production,’ in Hewings Martin (ed) Academic writing in context: Implications and applications. Papers in honor of Tony Dudley-Evans (Birminham: University of Birmingham Press, 2001) 215-226.

Whyte, S. (2016). Who are the specialists? Teaching and learning specialised language in French educational contexts. Recherches et pratiques pédagogiques en langue de spécialité, 35(3) https://apliut.revues.org/5487

Mobile technologies in language learning: Fernando Rosell Aguilar

Fernando Rosell Aguilar successfully defended his doctoral dissertation 5 February 2021 on Evaluating the use of mobile technologies for language learning purposes. His work was supervised by Ana Maria Gimeno Sanz at Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, evaluated by Robert Godwin-Jones, Shannon Sauro, and Joan Tomas Pujola, and examined by Jozef Colpaert, Mar Gutiérrez-Colon Plana and myself.

The research focuses on the effectiveness for second language learning of three mobile technologies (podcast, Twitter, mobile apps). The thesis is organised in four chapters: the introduction reviews the field of CALL/MALL (respectively Computer-Assisted and Mobile-Assisted Language Learning), chapter two presents a selection of the author’s published research; this research is discussed in chapter three, and the fourth chapter offers links to the earlier literature review and perspectives for future research. The reference section runs to 70 pages.

The literature review covers CALL/MALL academics (e.g., Reinders, Stockwell, Pegrum, Godwin-Jones, Thorne, Burston, Chapelle, Hubbard, Levy, Chun), the OER movement (Conole, Traxler, Kukulska-Hume) and tech-mediated language teachers/educators (Graham Stanley, Joe Dale). Six key concepts are suggested to frame the research, covering psycho-social factors (FL anxiety, attention) and techno-pedagogical factors (badges, normalisation in Baxian sense). The main research focus is on learner use and language learning outcomes from technology use.

The research on podcasting is reported in three articles: CALL (2007), LL&T (2013), IJMBL (2015). The author provides an early overview of the affordances of podcasts for MFL, and surveys use of iTunes U, the Apple repository for educational podcasts. This work provides information on learner profiles from a very large participant pool. The mobile studies appeared in CALICO (2017), a handbook edited by Palalas & Ally, and CALL (2018). The first paper presents a taxonomy of the affordances for language learning of specialist and generalist mobile apps. The book chapter is a user survey of learner use of mobile apps, and the CALL study analyses the language learning app busuu. This work also focuses on user evaluation. The Twitter research is published in the proceedings of an OU conference (Researchpublishing.net 2018), the Journal of Interactive Media in Education (OU journal, 2018), and IJCALLT (2020). The first reviews the literature on Twitter use for language learning. The second considers professional development of language teachers via the hashtag #MFLtwitterati. The third reports on a survey of Twitter users perceptions of the platform as a language learning resource.

The discussion chapter reviews these publications and in the fourth chapter the work is considered with respect to the six factors announced in the introduction. The conclusion offers a synthetic framework for dimensions of mobile language learning and and also emphasises the new urgency of this type of research given the current health crisis.

Bibliography

Rosell-Aguilar, F. (2003). Electronic literacy with and attitudes towards the web as a resource for foreign language learning. In: Piqué-Angordans, Jordi; Esteve, Marie Jose and Gea-Valor, Maria Lluisa eds. Internet in language for specific purposes and foreign language teaching competence. Collecció Estudis Filològics (15). Castelló de la Plana, Spain: Publicacions de la Universitat Jaume I, pp. 423–444.
Rosell-Aguilar, F. (2004). Well done and well liked: online information literacy skills and learner impressions of the web as a resource for foreign language learning. ReCALL, 16
Rosell-Aguilar, F. (2005). Task design for audiographic conferencing: Promoting beginner oral interaction in distance language learning. Computer assisted language learning, 18(5), 417-442. doi:10.1080/09588220500442772
Rosell-Aguilar, F. (2006a). Online tutorial support in open distance learning through audio-graphic SCMC: Tutor impressions. JALT-CALL Journal, 2(2), 37-52. doi:10.29140/jaltcall.v2n2.25
Rosell-Aguilar, F. (2006b). The face-to-face and the online learner: a comparative study of tutorial support for open and distance language learning and the learner experience with audio-graphic SCMC. Reading Matrix: An International Online Journal, 6(3).
Rosell-Aguilar, F. (2007a). Changing tutor roles in online tutorial support for open distance learning through audio-graphic SCMC. The JALT CALL Journal, 3(1-2), 81- 94. doi:10.29140/jaltcall.v3n1-2.37
Rosell-Aguilar, F. (2007b). Top of the pods—In search of a podcasting “podagogy” for language learning. Computer Assisted language learning, 20(5), 471-492. doi:10.1080/09588220701746047
Rosell-Aguilar, F. (2009). Podcasting for language learning: Re-examining the potential. In L. Lomicka & G. Lord (Eds.), The Next Generation: Social Networking and Online Collaboration in Foreign Language Learning. San Marco: Calico, Texas, USA, pp. 13-34.
Rosell-Aguilar, F. (2013a). Delivering unprecedented access to learning through podcasting as OER, but who’s listening? A profile of the external iTunes U
user. Computers & Education, 67, 121-129. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2013.03.008
Rosell-Aguilar, F. (2013b). Podcasting for language learning through iTunes U: The learner’s view. Language Learning & Technology, 17(3), 74-93. doi:10125/44340
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